Can the Cassini maps of France be found online?

Can the Cassini maps of France be found online?

I am looking for online versions of the Cassini maps (i.e. "the first general maps of the territory using a measuring apparatus were made by the Cassini family during the 18th century" from - preferably all maps combined in one map if such a thing exists. I

I tried the national library of France site (, but when I click on a Cassini map, it always gives me the message "La page recherchée n'existe pas !" (the page you were looking for does not exist).

Does anyone know where I can find the maps online (and preferably combined in one map)?

@Semaphore pointed out that Cassini maps are available on Wikimedia Commons. The combined map can be found here:">

How to look for records of. Tithes

This guide explains what types of records were created as part of the Tithe Survey and how to search for them. It also refers to other records related to tithes.

This guide may be useful if you:

  • are interested in an ancestor who once lived in a given parish
  • wish to find out more about a particular property
  • are researching local history
  • require a large-scale map of an area in the mid-19th century

The records of the Tithe Survey may show where people were living and who their neighbours were in early Victorian times. You may also find information on crop acreages, field names, house occupancy, rights of way and parish boundaries.

For information on the use of tithe records in chancel repairs research please see our research guide on Chancel repair liabilities in England and Wales.

You may be able to locate records of the Tithe Survey in other archives. See section Records held in other archives.

10 Ways Cassini Mattered

Cassini-Huygens was a mission of firsts. First to orbit Saturn. First landing in the outer solar system. First to sample an extraterrestrial ocean.

Cassini expanded our understanding of the kinds of worlds where life might exist.

Cassini-Huygens revealed Titan to be one of the most Earth-like worlds we&rsquove encountered and shed light on the history of our home planet.

Cassini was, in a sense, a time machine. It revealed the processes that likely shaped the development of our solar system.

Cassini&rsquos long mission enabled us to observe weather and seasonal changes on another planet.

Cassini revealed Saturn&rsquos moons to be unique worlds with their own stories to tell.

Cassini showed us the complexity of Saturn&rsquos rings and the dramatic processes operating within them.

What Cassini found at Saturn prompted scientists to rethink their understanding of the solar system.

Cassini represented a staggering achievement of human and technical complexity, finding innovative ways to use the spacecraft.

Cassini revealed the beauty of Saturn, its rings and moons, inspiring our sense of wonder.

About Stanfords

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Timeline of the Roman Empire and Lands of the Celtic People

475BC The people of Rome and their allies (the Latin League) overthrew their Etruscan rulers. After the Gallic attack on Rome the city was gradually rebuilt to become one of the largest in Italy. BY 338 BC the Romans ruled the Latin League with absolute power. From 300-280BC the Romans mastered their local enemies: the Etruscans, Samnites and the Gauls of North of Italy (Po Valley).

The Greek cities in the south of Italy concerned at the power of Rome sent their champion Pyrrhus against her. He won several battles but he eventually left to fight in other wars and with his final defeat in 275BC the Romans were masters of all of Italy.

279BC The Gauls advanced into Macedonia, Greece and Thrace. They were soon forced out of each of these countries but remained in Thrace until the end of the century. From Thrace three Gallic tribes advance into Anatolia and formed a new kingdom called Gallatia.

264-241BC The Romans went to war with Carthage and built a strong navy. They finally defeated Carthage in 241 BC and gained control of the island of Sicily and later the islands of Corsica and Sardinia.

236BC The Celts began to loose their lands to other people. The Romans conquered the Gauls in the Po valley. The Romans destroyed several Gallic armies and some important Gallic tribes even left Italy and went to live north of the Alps.

In 219BC Celtic tribes lost land in Spain to the Carthaginians. When Hannibal, the Carthagian general, attacked Seguntum the Romans came to the cities defence. This was the beginning of the Second Punic War.

218BC Hannibal won many battles against the Romans including the battle of Cannae where he defeated four Legions of the Roman republic. The Romans attacked and conquered Spain and then Carthage itself. The Carthaginians were finally defeated at the battle of Zama in 203BC. The Romans gained all of Carthage's territories in Spain.

200-191BC The Gauls of the Po Valley who had sided with Hannibal were defeated and the area became the Roman Province of 'Nearer Gaul'. At the end of the century the Thracians drove the Gauls out of Thrace. The Celts also lost a lot of land in Gallatia when the Seleucids and Pergamenes attacked them.

We do not know to whether large movements of Celtic people or close trade brought Celtic culture to Britain. Some Celtic tribes from Gaul settled in Britain before the Romans attacked Britain, in 55BC.

200-146BC The Romans fought with Greek states but mainly Macedonia.

149BC The Romans finally took over Macedonia after winning their Third Macedonian War. In 146BC the Romans brought all of Greece under their direct control.

149BC In a third war between the two countries Carthage was raised to the ground and its people sold as slaves. Following this final victory the Romans gained Carthage's North African territories.

133BC The king of Pergamum died and left his kingdom to Rome. The Romans now controlled nearly all of the lands surrounding the Mediterranean sea.

42BC Mark Anthony and his Roman legions fought the Parthians and suffered heavy casualties. He withdrew and made the Romans overlords of Armenia.

31BC Mark Anthony also helped Cleopatra recreate the Ptolemies Empire in Egypt. This was unpopular with the Romans and Julius Caesar's son Octavius defeated him at the battle of Actium.

Under Octavius Augustus' rule the Celtic kingdom of Galatia and (25BC) and Paphlagania (6BC) were absorbed into the Roman Empire.
Under Octavius although there was relative peace the Roman frontier was pushed to the River Danube. When the Romans tried to push the frontier to the River Elbe the Germans in the North of the country under the leadership of Arminius ambushed and slaughtered three Roman legions.

Cappadocia was added to the Roman Empire by the Emperor Tiberius and Mauretania by the Emperor Caligula.

41AD The Emperor Claudius invaded Britain and won a decisive battle at Medway. The Celtic chief Caractacus fled with his band of warriors to seek the assistance of the warlike tribe of the Silures (in today's South Wales).

The Silures were successful in ambushing smaller groups of Roman soldiers and at times they successfully fought larger units. In one battle they defeated a Roman legion and only fled when a relieving legion arrived.

78AD Julius Frontinus, the Roman Governor of Britain finally defeated the Silurians after moving the Second Legion Augustus to Caerleon.

The Emperor Domitian built forts in the German lands between the Rhine and Danube rivers and took the Roman frontier into the Black Forest and Taunus Mountains.

In 79AD Agricola became Governor of Britain and he led the Romans into the mountains of Britain. He immediately defeated the warlike Ordovician tribe of North Wales. The Brigantia tribe of North England & Southern Scotland were his next victims. Finally in 84AD the Romans fought the Caledonian tribes of Scotland and defeated them in the battle of Mons Graupius.

However, fighting on the Danube meant that the Romans had to reduce the number of legions in Britain to three and the Romans withdrew their frontier in the North of Britain.

The Emperor Trajan brought together ten Roman legions to fight the Dacians and after much hard fighting the Romans were victorious. Dacia was Rome's first province beyond the Danube River.

Armenia was made a Roman province in 114AD.

Adiabene and Mesopotamia were conquered by the Romans in 116AD.

When Trajan died in 117AD the Roman Empire had reached its greatest size.

The Emperor Hadrian did not try to conquer new lands but was content to defend the Empires frontiers. He withdrew from Mesopotamia and Armenia.

In Britain his troops built a wall across Northern Britain to protect the Roman frontier from the stubborn Caledonian tribes. In 145AD the frontier in Britain was moved northwards to the Antonine Wall.

In 251AD the Romans found themselves under attack and defeated by the Goths who gained control of the Balkans and then Anatolia. Five years later the Franks and Alemanni from Germany overran Roman Gaul, and raided into Spain and Italy. The Persians conquered Armenia and in 260AD they broke through out to Syria and sacked Antioch.

The Emperor Aurelian (270-275AD) officially abandoned Dacia to the Germanic Goths and Gepids. In Germany the Rhine-Danube triangle was also officially abandoned to the German Alemanni tribe.

The Roman Empire became permanently divided into the Western and Eastern Empires. The Eastern Roman Empire became known as the Byzantium Empire.

In the fourth century AD warrior horsemen from the East called Huns forced some German tribes to move into the Western Roman Empire. Rome itself was sacked by the Visigoths in 410AD. In the same year the Roman Emperor told the British that they would have to organise their own defence without assistance from Roman troops. Throughout much of Britain and Gaul, Roman administrators were expelled and the natives organised their own defence. Some Romans remained to fight the invaders.

Britain was now an easy target and was attacked by Picts from the North and by Irish Celts in the West. In Eastern Britain German mercenaries were employed by the Romano-British leader Vortigen to help defend against invading groups. In return these mercenaries were given the chance to settle in Eastern Britain. However, these foreign mercenaries encouraged other members of their tribes to join in the plunder of Britain and settle in Celtic lands. The new migrants included the Saxons, Jutes and Angles. They formed their own kingdoms in what is now known as England.

In 455 and 493AD an Ostrogothic kingdom was established in Italy and Roman domination was at an end. The Byzantium Empire survived for another thousand years until the Turks captured Constantinople in 1453 AD.

Map of the Roman Empire and Celtic Lands

You can also find all of this text within the map -

800BC The Celts controlled most of central Europe and by 700BC they also conquered the lands of Northern Spain. Over the next hundred years they expanded into the centre of Spain but lost their lands in the North of Spain. The Celts in central Europe become known as Gauls. The Celts may have begun to arrive in Britain around 480BC. They continued their settlement of Britain throughout this time.

410-390BC The Gauls expanded down through the lands, which the river Danube flows, and into the North of Italy. There they conquered the Etruscan people and they defeated the Romans and sacked Rome.

Discover new ways

Explore the best of where

Apple Maps editors have worked with trusted brands and partners to offer Guides that make recommendations for the best places to visit in cities around the world to eat, shop, meet friends, or explore. 6 You can save Guides so you can easily get back to them later. And they automatically update when new places are added, so you always have the latest recommendations. You can also create your own personal Guides and share them with friends and family.

Some of the most recognized names in publishing have partnered with us to create Guides that present distinctive curated collections of must‑see city attractions. And there are more on the way.

Your everyday favorites. Just a tap away.

Whether it’s home, work, the gym, or your kid’s school, the places you visit most often are displayed for quick, one‑tap navigation when you open Maps on your devices or on your dashboard with CarPlay.

Find your way around major airports and malls.

With Indoor Maps, you can navigate more easily inside major airports and shopping centers around the world. Find out which restaurants are past security at the airport, where the nearest restroom is, or what floor your favorite store is on at the mall.

Get a 3D preview of where

you’re going with Look Around.

Explore select cities with an interactive 3D experience that gives you a 360�gree view of a place. And enjoy smooth and seamless transitions as you navigate your way around.

Proactive suggestions help you stay one step ahead.

Maps displays a list of the places you’re most likely to go, so you can get directions to any of the locations with just a tap. If you have an upcoming flight, it gives you up‑to‑the‑moment information about terminals, gate locations, departure times, and more.

Take in a bird’s𠄞ye view of your favorite cities with Flyover.

See select major metro areas from the air with photo‑realistic, immersive 3D views. You can move your device through space to experience a city from above, or explore in high resolution as you zoom, pan, tilt, and rotate around the city and its landmarks. 7

Find just the right place. Right around the corner.

When you perform a search, the Nearby feature lists local places you might be looking for in categories like Restaurants, Gas Stations, Coffee, Hotels, Bars, Fast Food, Groceries, and Shopping Centers. Locations are displayed on the map with colorful badges for easy route planning. And for locations that support App Clips — which give you a fast and secure way to rent a bike, pay for parking, order food, and more — place cards in Maps include a button to launch them.

The Future

Most of the topographic maps currently in use were produced manually. For mapmakers, however, the future is here today. A well-established network of navigational satellites form the basis of the Global Positioning System (GPS). This system allows field surveyors to accurately determine horizontal positions within a few feet, even in the most remote terrain where conventional surveying techniques are impossible.

Other satellites carrying a variety of sensors may soon replace the aerial photography method of making maps. The first of a series of Landsat satellites was launched in 1972, and by 1984 they could detect objects on the surface of Earth about 100 ft (30 m) in size. In 1998, an American company was preparing to launch a satellite that could detect objects as small as 3 ft (1 m), which would produce images with as much detail as current USGS 7.5 minute maps. More importantly, these images would be captured and transmitted as digital data, which could then be processed and printed by computers. This would significantly reduce the time required to produce or update maps and would improve the overall accuracy as well.

Do-It-Yourself Mapping

GPS Visualizer is an online utility that creates maps and profiles from geographic data. It is free and easy to use, yet powerful and extremely customizable. Input can be in the form of GPS data (tracks and waypoints), driving routes, street addresses, or simple coordinates. Use it to see where you've been, plan where you're going, or quickly visualize geographic data (scientific observations, events, business locations, customers, real estate, geotagged photos, etc.).

To set more options, use the detailed input pages:

Help keep GPS Visualizer free

GPS Visualizer is a free service and hopefully always will be however, if you find it interesting, time-saving, or just plain fun, you can say "thanks" -- and encourage further development -- by clicking the button above and making a contribution via credit card or PayPal. Or, you could send an Amazon item.

GPS Visualizer can read data files from many different sources, including but not limited to: GPX (a standard format used with many devices and programs, including Garmin's eTrex, GPSMAP, Oregon, Dakota, Colorado, & Nüvi series), Google Earth (.kml/ .kmz), Google Maps routes (URLs), FAI/IGC glider logs, Fugawi (.trk/ .wpt), Furuno, Garmin Fitness (.fit), Garmin Forerunner (.xml/ .hst/ .tcx), Garmin MapSource/ BaseCamp/ HomePort (.gdb), (.loc), Google Sheets, iGO (.trk), Lowrance (.usr), Microsoft Excel spreadsheets (.xls/ .xlsx), NMEA 0183 data, OziExplorer (.plt/ .wpt), Suunto X9/X9i (.sdf), Timex Trainer, TomTom (.pgl), U-blox (.ubx), XML feeds, and of course tab-delimited or comma-separated text.

GPS Visualizer is based in Portland, Oregon, and has been on the Web since October 2002.

Based on a unique quality of the individual, descriptive French surnames were often developed from nicknames or pet names, such as Jacques Legrand, for Jacques, "the Big." Other common examples include Petit (small) and LeBlanc (blonde hair or fair complexion).

Geographical or habitational French surnames are based on a person’s residence, often a former residence (for example, Yvonne Marseille means Yvonne from the village of Marseille). They may also describe the individual's specific location within a village or town, such as Michel Léglise, who lived next to the church. The prefixes "de," "des," "du," and "le" (which translate to "of") are also used in French geographical surnames.

How Location Services Work

Not many people know that the location awareness of their portable devices and software extends to tracking and recording their location history, as well. In the case of Google, if you opt-in to Places You've Been in your account settings, your location history consists of a detailed and searchable data file with a visible trail, organized by date and time. Apple provides less information but keeps, and displays at your request, a record of your recently visited places, without the detailed trail feature that Google offers.

Both Google and Apple provide these history files with assurances about privacy, and you can opt-out, or, in the case of Google, erase your location history.

These are useful services that help you as long as you're aware of them and have them opted into your comfort level. In some situations, location history could play an important role in legal or rescue situations.

Watch the video: Cassini Terrestrial MOVA Globe (January 2022).